Saturday, March 14, 2020

A Letter From Saudi Arabia Essays - Sahabah, Arab People

A Letter From Saudi Arabia Essays - Sahabah, Arab People A Letter From Saudi Arabia Dear Mr. LMN, Hope you are doing well. How are things at the Academy? I am doing just fine here in Al Arabiyah as Saudiyah1, ever heard that name before? It is just the local short name for Saudi Arabia. It is already a year since I left US and now I am almost half way through the two years that I am spending here. Theres a lot that I want to tell you about my experience so far. I always wanted to leave Westford for good, but had never imagined that I would someday be doing a job in Saudi Arabia! It all started when I got this new job with the Saudi Arabian Specifications and Standard Organization (SASSO)2. My Uncle has a close friend in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. So one night my uncle asked me if I would like to live for two years in Saudi Arabia, and then he told me about this job opportunity for which they required a qualified engineer in structural architecture. It wasnt exactly something that I had planned in life, but I always wanted to experience life in a different atmosphere, and this was the perfect opportunity for me to do so so here I am! I work in a Water conservation-desalination1 plant in a town called Khumrah which is 30 miles south from Jeddah3. It is a small town with a population a little less than Westford3. Where I live is very close to my work, barely a 5-minute walk from the plant. Since there arent many trees around the place I live, it is usually very hot in that area. The average temperature here in Summer is really killing!! Sometimes it gets as high as 94 degrees Fahrenheit in summer, its an extreme climate here4! It certainly is a big change from Westford! It makes me sweat a lot, but I have gotten used to that. Even now I still calculate the temperature in Fahrenheit, whereas this country follows the metric system, which is sometimes confusing, but thats just part of the experience. But I am really thankful to my uncle, he did give me a lot of tips about staying here. For instance the kind of clothes that I should pack, what vaccinations I should take before leaving other than those required by the Saudi consulate such as the ones for cholera5. So I guess, I was pretty much packed up when I left America. I live in a small 2 story building, in a 2-bedroom apartment- building6 with Umar, the son of my Uncles friend. The apartment building has no parking lot, there is no reason to have one because not many people in this town own cars for themselves. At first, that really surprised me! I and Umar have become really close friends now. He too works in the same plant with me. He can speak some English, although he can understand everything I say in English, which is something that I am really thankful for- Its one of the best things to happen to me. You will not find many English-speaking people here. In only 60% of the population of people 15 years and older can read and write1. Anways.. so we live on the 2nd floor and there is an Arab family that lives downstairs. The first day, when I arrived at the Jeddah airport, I was amazed by the way the airport is designed, it looks more like the ancient Islamic architecture that I had seen much of in the travel brochures on the flight. It took a while to clear the customs, especially since the import laws here are very strict7. After clearing the customs as soon as I was at the arrival terminal Umar was there to receive me. He recognized me with the help of a photograph that my uncle had mailed to him. Since I am a Muslim, I had some knowledge of Arabic, from what Iittle I had learnt in Islamic school, but that was twenty years ago!! Anyway, so I greeted Umar, in what I though was an ancient Arabic greeting- As salaam O Alaiqum8, he replied by saying Wa Alaiqum As Salaam. But later, I discovered

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Botticelli, Birth of Venus and Venus De Milo Essay

Botticelli, Birth of Venus and Venus De Milo - Essay Example The well-mixed primary colors resulted in clearly defined secondary colors. The colors provided an outstanding emphasis on the beauty’s milky skin color. Artists illustrate Venus as one of the most beautiful and chaste goddesses who remained as a symbol of coming spring. Painters designed her nudity to depict some significance in itself because all artworks of Renaissance history revolved around the theme of Christianity at that time. At the time, it was not easy to portray a woman as nude (Siapkas & Sjogren, 2013). Most aspects of Botticelli’s Birth of Venus manipulate in motion. For instance, a succinct observation of the orange tree leaves in her background as well as her hair shows that Zephyrs had blown them away. They are floating behind her, the cloaks and the waves gently breaking. Further, the breeze also blows and lifts her drapery of the figures. Representative/Objective The Venus de Milo statue had a carved right arm that lay across the torso with a rested right hand on the left knee that remained raised. Meanwhile, the left arm held up an apple at an eye level. The statute comprises two blocks of marble that sculptured on separate occasions, then joined at the hips (Judovitz & Duchamp, 2010). The sculptors used tendon joints to fashion the left arm and foot, though as different pieces. Venus de Milo had some of its parts broken during transportation including right hip and three other pieces.

Monday, February 10, 2020

LukoilBP Comparison Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

LukoilBP Comparison - Case Study Example Nonetheless, its performance in boosting its market value has been described as hyper in nature as evidenced by the graph below: This ratio is the company's share price at year end divided by basic income per share. Basic earnings per ordinary share amounts are calculated by dividing the profit for the year attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the year. The average number of shares outstanding excludes treasury shares and the shares held by the employee share ownership plans. The following tables detail BP and OAO LUKOIL share price, basic income per share and the price to earnings ratio: BP, having wider operations than LUKOIL, registers a higher P/E ratio. However, computing for the rate of change of the P/E, it is found that LUKOIL is registering much higher growth than BP. The results are shown below: With this information, it can be seen that LUKOIL registers double digits for the P/E ratio. This growth essentially tells the investor that LUKOIL is outperforming BP. Although the investor can expect higher returns for BP, this may not be the case in the future as LUKOIL's P/E growth rate is double that of BP. Basically, the P/E ratio is expected to increase as Basic Earning Per Share are also up with share price also expected to increase because of the good performance of LUKOIL. ... Sample Computation: ( LUKOIL 2005) P/E = Share Price / Basic Earnings Per Share = 59.40 / 7.91 = 7.51 BP, having wider operations than LUKOIL, registers a higher P/E ratio. However, computing for the rate of change of the P/E, it is found that LUKOIL is registering much higher growth than BP. The results are shown below: Table 4. Rate of Change Profile P/E Rate of Change (%) 2003-2004 2004-2005 LUKOIL 13.62 28.60__ BP 6.07 12.36__ The computation for the rate of change was carried on using the following equation: Rate of Change = ( P/E for Year End - P/E for the Previous Year End) * 100% P/E for the Previous Year End With this information, it can be seen that LUKOIL registers double digits for the P/E ratio. This growth essentially tells the investor that LUKOIL is outperforming BP. Although the investor can expect higher returns for BP, this may not be the case in the future as LUKOIL's P/E growth rate is double that of BP. Forecast The most recent available projection for LUKOIL is a 9M 2006 projections and is conveniently compared to 9M 2005. It is shown below: Table 5. Financial Forecast Source: 2006 Financial Results from www.lukoil.ru/ investorcenter Basically, the P/E ratio is expected to increase as Basic Earning Per Share are also up with share price also expected to increase because of the good performance of LUKOIL. The company is currently very aggressive in entering and capturing a major portion of the US market. It has already purchased rights to Getty and its oil distribution facilities in the US. With regards to BP, the P/E ratio is forecasted to increase as well

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Deinstitutionalizing the Mentally lll, Blessing or Curse Essay Example for Free

Deinstitutionalizing the Mentally lll, Blessing or Curse Essay The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill was originally and idealistically portrayed as a liberating, humane policy alternative to the restrictive care in large state supported hospitals. It was supposed to help these individuals regain freedom and empower themselves through responsible choices and actions. Due to many funding issues, stiff opposition from communities, and ill-equipped patients, who are unable to live independently, this idealized program, has not always been a blessing for the communities or the patients. In the early 1960s, President John F. Kennedy signed into law a bill that began the movement known as deinstitutionalization. The purpose of the new law was to put an end to the tendency to warehouse people with mental illnesses, as well as those with developmental disabilities, including the mentally and physically handicapped. The idea was to move the less severely mentally ill from those large institutions into the community, where local treatment centers would be established to provide them with medical, psychiatric, and social support they need to be able to live and function. see more:smartphones boon or bane Some believe that deinstitutionalization has been and continues to be successful. Perhaps one of the brightest spots of the effects of deinstitutionalization is that the mentally ill have gained a greatly increased measure of liberty (Curtis, 2008). Some persons, despite their illnesses, have realized a certain degree of normalization in their daily activities. Some live independently, and some are productively employed, achievements that were relatively rare in the days before deinstitutionalization. For these people, deinstitutionalization must be regarded as a positive development (Warner, 1995). Deinstitutionalization, which has now become a synonym for neglect, was supposed to be about creating a new system of services and supports that would allow people with mental illness and mental retardation to thrive in their communities outside of hospital settings during all of the times when they did not need hospital services (Sheth, 2009). An estimated 4. 5 million Americans today suffer from the severest forms of brain disorder, schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness and out of 4. million 1. 8 million, or 40 percent are not receiving any treatment on any given day, resulting in homelessness, incarceration, and violence; one of the reasons for this condition is a failure of the deinstitutionalization policy (Fact Sheet, Treatment Advocacy Centre).? The U. S. Department of Justice estimates that over a quarter of a million mentally ill individuals are currently incarcerated in the U. S. state and federal prison system constituting between eight and 17 percent of the entire prison population (Martin, 2011). The deinstitutionalization policy, which has been improperly implemented, is acting like a misguided missile, causing the helpless and defenseless inmates of the mental hospitals to beg and roam on roads and footpaths; to take refuge in shelter homes and beggar’s homes; to starve on streets and eat from garbage bins; they are jeered in society and physically, verbally and sexually assaulted in alleys; they languish in jails and suffers in prisons; They shiver in cold and simmer in heat; they sleep on a bed of earth with a blanket of sky. We have shifted problems of mental hospitals to the streets, jails and shelter homes. While making backyards of our mental hospitals beautiful, we have made our streets ugly. The process of deinstitutionalization has turned deadly. There seems to be some truth in a saying that deinstitutionalization caused people to die with their rights on (Sheth, 2009). The deinstitutionalization movement of the mentally ill had a noble aim, but failed to achieve it. The solution is complicated but it is not however, unattainable. Train the police officers and emergency responders on how to identify the mentally ill patients and direct them into available treatment facilities. The government can also fund jail and prison programs that screen, evaluate and treat mentally ill inmates. Establish mental health courts, more mental hospitals with adequate staffing, start more day care centers, and have more adequate affordable housing. These solutions, of course, all require funding from a government with spending that is already out of control and on the brink of bankruptcy. But the truth is, by helping the seriously mentally ill, we help ourselves.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Essay --

The lady and the tiger was a story with no ending, this is bothersome because it truly left everybody wondering. That is quite possibly the brilliance of the story, it forces readers to ponder their thoughts and come up with their own ending. Love has a lot to do with the story â€Å"The Lady and the Tiger†. The story gives the princess fate over her lover. The problem arose because the princess’s father will not allow her to be with him. The story takes place in a kingdom and involves the king, the princess, and her lover. The princess’s decision on which door to gesture to her lover is presumed to have a large impact on the story, which it does however the question that is which door her lover opens remains un-answered. The princess will open the door with the lady behind it, she will be able to put her jealousy and romantic emotions behind human morality. The princess will lead the gentleman towards the door with the maiden behind it because it is highly unethical to kill a man because she will have to see them together. Human morality plays a large role in her decision to do this. The pain she experiences from seeing her lover with her enemy will fade. On the other hand, the pain she would experience from seeing him die in front of her eyes would linger on and on. Furthermore the pain of the reflection of that decision to kill him would bring her much regret. She would continue to question her morality and she would hurt from the decision she made for a very long time. In â€Å"The Lady or the Tiger† Stockton says â€Å"Had it not been for the moiety of barbarism in her nature it is probable that the lady would not have been there†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Stockton 4). That quote is proof that even though her father was semi barbaric, due to the moiety she and t... ...nd, that decision leads him to be hit in the face by the guard. Following the hit, he falls to the ground. When he stands up it is undeniably decision time. He looks up to the king and gives him a nod of respect, he also looks up at the princess and quickly gazes into her eyes. The princess subtly pointed to the left. She changed her mind; the door she now wanted him to go through was on the left. He steps forward accepting the princess’s suggestion to go to the left, he places his hand on the door handle. He stops and keeps his hand there for a few second then opens up the door and notices a beautiful maiden stepping out of it. Filled with joy, he wraps his arms around her and thanks God for letting him live. The priest and wedding singers follow close behind the maiden and in the arena the two are married. The obviously guilty had in fact just been found innocent.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Organisations Need Strong Culture Essay

I will outline why a strong culture is required for organisations in a post-bureaucratic era. Culture â€Å"represents the totality of everyday knowledge that people use habitually to make sense of the world around them through patterns of shared meanings and understandings passed down through language, symbols, and artefacts† (Clegg 3rd Edition, 2011). It is the ‘glue’ that binds the workforce of an organisation in a post-bureaucratic organisation, which is heterarchical, meaning information flows across divisions and is more equally given to people and different managements. I will also draw upon numerous tutorial and additional readings to explore the differing opinions into the essence of culture and its importance to modern-day organisations. It is an important ingredient to success that organisations meet their objectives under a strong culture in the post-bureaucratic era, as the necessary outcomes will be achieved through a quality focused cultural organisation. Furthermore I will provide an overview of culture in the post-bureaucratic era with the assistance of Josserand (2012), and then analyse the working environment by comparing and contrasting its effectiveness with a strong culture using Rosen (1988) and Karreman, D. & Alvesson, M (2004). Lastly I will assess an organisations working situation without culture using Bolden (2006), to ultimately show that in my opinion it is clear that â€Å"organisations need strong culture† to be successful. Josserand (2012) analyses corporate alumni networks as a post-bureaucratic management practice that perpetuates an individuals’ subjectivation despite them no longer being a part of the organisation. Courpasson (2000, cited in Josserand 2012) states that â€Å"post-bureaucratic management practices are powerful soft-domination devices†. On the surface it appears as though there is equality among workers in the organization which helps produce obedience, however it’s actually a pervasive system of controls which subtly reinforces the hierarchical structure (Josserand, 2012). It’s been debated that an enterprising culture is promoted by post-bureaucratic practices. DuGay (2000, cited in Josserand 2012) further points out that it â€Å"carries humanistic values of autonomy, responsibility, flexibility, confidence, and trust, that encourages people to be empowered and to take on responsibilities†. Culture gives organisations unique identities but most importantly, I believe a positive culture benefits both employees and employers, as it creates a productive working environment and thus leads to more efficient and effective work practices. It increases the successfulness of the organisation if implemented successfully. Employing a strong culture in an organisation can be a tedious, time consuming and a difficult task, however it is a long term project to increase the organisations profitability by increasing the enjoyment and satisfaction of its’ workers. In addition workers will flourish according to Salaman & Storey (2008, cited in Josserand 2012) â€Å"by constantly achieving harder, better and faster†, which is beneficial for the employers and employers as better results are achieved. It also engrains the concept that they are â€Å"players on the same team† (Hardy, 1998, cited in Josserand 2012). The ultimate outcome is for the workers to believe they are â€Å"members of the big corporate family who they can trust as their relatives† (Casey 1999, cited in Josserand 2012). From this, they all enjoy the success of achieving the ‘family’s’ key objectives. Negative culture lacks the engagement and empowerment aspects needed by a successful organisation and achieving the key objectives in a weaker or negative cultured organisation become much more difficult and stresses the bureaucratic processes. Rosen’s (1988) article utilises the setting of an organisations Christmas party to draw out the cultural and symbolic meanings, under the guise of a supposedly innocent social event. There is a â€Å"blurring of boundary between self and organisation† (Rosen 1988), giving workers a chance to develop more personal relationships with fellow workers, which I believe is an important consideration in driving culture. However subtly it is a form of normative control which reinforces the organisations hierarchy. Nevertheless, bosses, co-workers, and inferiors in the organisation socialise in the social setting, not as â€Å"subordinates† (Rosen 1988) but as equals. This further â€Å"blurs the boundaries between that which is work and play, instrumental and moral, inside and outside† (Rosen 1988), where familial bonds are forged and comradeship created. Here, workers’ life and work become indistinguishable. Creating and maintaining a strong culture is thus beneficial for both employees and employers as they feel â€Å"belonging as family and profession† (Rosen 1988). Greater bonding among workers helps develop a sense of connection and a feeling of belonging, which therefore increases the productivity of the employees and therefore make the organisation more profitable. The Christmas party is ultimately â€Å"a collection of members forming an organic unity† (Rosen 1988), creating a culture which â€Å"encourages an informal, flexible, and dedicated membership, one not constrained by extensive rules, and one capable of accomplishing ill-defined and complex tasks† (Rosen 1988). It is the ongoing drive to succeed which continues to grow the strength of the positive culture that is continually being by a valued workforce. Karreman, D. & Alvesson, M (2004), uses the case of ‘Big Consulting’ to discuss how â€Å"organizations were stereotypically understood as bureaucracies, with very slightly refined and tightened structural cages†. Bureaucratic modes of organizing include â€Å"division of labor, hierarchy, and standardization† (Karreman, D. & Alvesson, M 2004), and these usually alienate workers as managers take no appreciation of their contribution. This negative culture that is created from alienating and disengaging workers is very difficult to transform into positive culture, and therefore weakens organisations and bureaucracies as a result. However it has changed over the past thirty years, and this stereotype has been replaced with a cliche â€Å"that organizations are becoming increasingly network based, organic, and flexible, and knit together: values, ideas, mutual adjustment, community feelings or identity† (Karreman, D. & Alvesson, M 2004). Here it is evident that a culture of positivity, teamwork and individuality has been developed. Adopting these practices has benefited ‘Big Consulting’ as it has instilled a â€Å"delivery culture and commitment to keeping deadlines at all costs† (Karreman, D. & Alvesson, M 2004). Now strength is the focus of the organisation when completing a task, as the workers have been cultured into committing themselves whole-heartedly to working together as a team to complete work projects. The culture which has been bread in this organisation can enhance an organisations reputation as evident by ‘Big Consulting’ case study where it is now known as â€Å"a reliable and trustworthy business that delivers what is promised† (Karreman, D. Alvesson, M 2004). Though Bolden, R. Gosling (2006) does not focus on culture, I will be using it to show the disadvantages and issues associated with organisations and leaders without a strong culture. The competency approach â€Å"appears to be fast becoming one of the most dominant models for management and leader ship assessment and development in the UK† (Miller et al. , 2001; Rankin, 2002, cited in Bolden, R. Gosling 2006). This approach was founded on an â€Å"objectivist view of the world that considers the worker and the work as distinct entities† (Bolden, R. Gosling 2006). Of importance – in my belief – is the fact that â€Å"the strong emphasis on individual behaviour means that outcomes are invariably attributed to the individual rather than the collective and/or contextual† (Bolden, R. Gosling 2006). This can have negative effects on the organisation as workers lack the determination and motivation because they receive near no credit for the work they’ve undertaken nor the goals they have achieved. Therefore the organisations profitability often decreases, as workers become increasingly unsatisfied and unproductive as they feel as though they are taken for granted and only known as ‘numbers’ rather than people. I have outlines why â€Å"organisations need strong culture† by providing an overview of culture in the post-bureaucratic era, and an analysis of the working environment by comparing and contrasting its’ effectiveness with and without strong culture. Josserand (2012), Rosen (1988), and Karreman, D. & Alvesson, M (2004), assisted me in showing how post-bureaucratic organisations with a strong culture focused on working together as a team benefits organisations. While I used Bolden, R.  Gosling (2006) to illustrate the negative aspects to an organisation that is hierarchical and does not take notice of employees, and the value they can often add to achieving the organisations goals. I have come to the overall conclusion that organisations do in fact need strong culture, as it increases worker moral and productivity because they are recognised and are engaged as valuable members of the organisation. This in turn benefits the organisation as its profitability increases as a positive workforce leads to positive outcomes with the goals of the organisations being achieved.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Ribosomes and Protein Assembly

There are two major types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell. Depending on the protein production level of a particular cell, ribosomes may number in the millions. Key Takeaways: Ribosomes Ribosomes are cell organelles that function in protein synthesis. Ribosomes in plant and animals cells are larger than those found in bacteria.Ribosomes are composed of RNA and proteins that form ribosome subunits: a large ribosome subunit and small subunit. These two subunits are produced in the nucleus and unite in the cytoplasm during protein synthesis.Free ribosomes are found suspended in the cytosol, while bound ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.Mitochondria and chloroplasts are capable of producing their own ribosomes. Distinguishing Characteristics Structure of a Ribosome. Interaction of a ribosome with mRNA.   ttsz/iStock/Getty Images Plus Ribosomes are typically composed of two subunits: a large subunit and a small subunit. Eukarotic ribosomes (80S), such as those in plant cells and animal cells, are larger in size than prokaryotic ribosomes (70S), such as those in bacteria. Ribosomal subunits are synthesized in the nucleolus and cross over the nuclear membrane to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores. Both ribosomal subunits join together when the ribosome attaches to messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Ribosomes along with another RNA molecule, transfer RNA (tRNA), help to translate the protein-coding genes in mRNA into proteins. Ribosomes link amino acids together to form polypeptide chains, which are further modified before becoming functional proteins. Location in the Cell Ribosomes can be found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or free within the cytoplasm.   ttsz/iStock/Getty Images Plus There are two places where ribosomes commonly exist within a eukaryotic cell: suspended in the cytosol and bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. These ribosomes are called free ribosomes and bound ribosomes respectively. In both cases, the ribosomes usually form aggregates called polysomes or polyribosomes during protein synthesis. Polyribosomes are clusters of ribosomes that attach to a mRNA molecule during protein synthesis. This allows for multiple copies of a protein to be synthesized at once from a single mRNA molecule. Free ribosomes usually make proteins that will function in the cytosol (fluid component of the cytoplasm), while bound ribosomes usually make proteins that are exported from the cell or included in the cells membranes. Interestingly enough, free ribosomes and bound ribosomes are interchangeable and the cell can change their numbers according to metabolic needs. Organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic organisms have their own ribosomes. Ribosomes in these organelles are more like ribosomes found in bacteria with regard to size. The subunits comprising ribosomes in mitochondria and chloroplasts are smaller (30S to 50S) than the subunits of ribosomes found throughout the rest of the cell (40S to 60S). Ribosomes and Protein Assembly Ribosomes interact with mRNA to produce proteins in a process called translation.   ttsz/iStock/Getty Images Plus Protein synthesis occurs by the processes of transcription and translation. In transcription, the genetic code contained within DNA is transcribed into an RNA version of the code known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA transcript is transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it undergoes translation. In translation, a growing amino acid chain, also called a polypeptide chain, is produced. Ribosomes help to translate mRNA by binding to the molecule and linking amino acids together to produce a polypeptide chain. The polypeptide chain eventually becomes a fully functioning protein. Proteins are very important biological polymers in our cells as they are involved in virtually all cell functions. There are some differences between protein synthesis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Since eukaryotic ribosomes are larger than those in prokaryotes, they require more protein components. Other differences include different initiator amino acid sequences to start protein synthesis as well as different elongation and termination factors. Eukaryotic Cell Structures This is a diagram of an animal cell. colematt/iStock/Getty Images Plus   Ribosomes are only one type of cell organelle. The following cell structures can also be found in a typical animal eukaryotic cell: Centrioles - help to organize the assembly of microtubules.​Chromosomes - house cellular DNA.​Cilia and Flagella - aid in cellular locomotion.​Cell Membrane - protects the integrity of the interior of the cell.​Endoplasmic Reticulum - synthesizes carbohydrates and lipids.​Golgi Complex - manufactures, stores and ships certain cellular products.​Lysosomes - digest cellular macromolecules.​Mitochondria - provide energy for the cell.​Nucleus - controls cell growth and reproduction.Peroxisomes - detoxify alcohol, form bile acid, and use oxygen to break down fats. Sources Berg, Jeremy M. Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis Differs from Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis Primarily in Translation Initiation. Biochemistry. 5th Edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2002, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22531/#_ncbi_dlg_citbx_NBK22531.Wilson, Daniel N, and Jamie H Doudna Cate. The structure and function of the eukaryotic ribosome. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology vol. 4,5 a011536. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a011536